Video mocking Prophet Muhammad spurs attacks on US diplomatic missions in Benghazi and Cairo.
Thousands have protested the film outside the US embassy in Cairo [AFP]
|An obscure slapstick film said to be entitled Innocence of Muslims or Life of Muhammedhas been cited as the cause for riots at US diplomatic posts in Egypt and Libya.But the existence of the purported filmmaker, Sam Bacile, allegedly a 52-year-old Israeli-American real estate developer, has not been proven.
In interviews with the AP news agency and the Wall Street Journal, a man calling himself “Sam Bacile” said he had raised about $5m to produce the film. He also was quoted describing Islam as “a cancer”, and claimed he had raised money from “about 100 Jewish donors” to make the video.
But the interview subject did not even give the same age during his two known press interviews, as he told the AP he was 56.
The man said the amateur, two-hour-long film had involved dozens of actors and was produced in California in 2011. But new reports suggest neither any prior social media presence by the director nor any IMDB page for the film.
The director of the California Film Commission – which issues permits for films that are shot in the state, told the Huffington Post that no permit was ever granted to someone by the name “Sam Bacile”.
The trailer for the film – which itself is so far unavailable to the public – portrays Islam’s Prophet Muhammad as a fraud and a womaniser, and depicts him having sex. The entire film has only been shown once in public, at a theatre in Hollywood, said the source who identified himself as “Bacile”.
He also explained he made the film because “after 9/11 everybody should be in front of the judge”, AP reported. “Even Jesus, even Muhammad.”
But actors who participated in the filming now say they had no idea the film was even about Muhamad or Islam. The original casting call was reportedly for a film called “Desert Warrior” by director Alan Roberts.
And all the film’s religious references were actually dubbed after the original shooting.
“Bacile” is now reportedly in hiding, even though reports suggest that the name is merely cover for a larger group, or a pseudonym for someone who may be neither Israeli nor Jewish – but who cited such an identify to inflame tensions.
One of the actresses who says she was tricked into being in the film says “Bacile” told her on set that he was Egyptian, and that he spoke Arabic to other men present.
Reuters has reported that Egypt’s Coptic Orthodox church issued a statement condemning some Egyptian Christians living aboard who it said had financed “the production of a film insulting Prophet Muhammad”.
In Egypt and Libya, public anger at the video spilled over on Tuesday, leading to the death of the US ambassador in Benghazi, Libya and the evacuation of embassy workers in Cairo.
Spread on social media
How did an obscure film trailer come to have international ramifications? It was first posted on YouTube by a user called “sam bacile” in July 2012, and has received about 450,000 views to date.
The trailer began to get more attention in September. On September 4, the same user posted a version dubbed in Arabic, which has garnered tens of thousands of views.
Sadek, the head of the National American Coptic Assembly, is known for his vehemently anti-Islam views, and told the Wall Street Journal that “the violence that it [the film] caused in Egypt is further evidence of how violent the religion and people are”.
Terry Jones, the Florida pastor whose burning of Qurans in 2011 spurred riots across the Muslim world leading to several deaths, also reportedly promoted the film.
The Arabic version of the trailer received heavy media coverage in Egypt last week, including by controversial hardline TV host Khaled Abdallah, who reported on the film on September 8.
A clip of the show was posted to YouTube on September 9, where it has received almost 400,000 views so far.
“The operation behind this film appears to be extreme Egyptian Copts who want to discredit the Morsi government and create a provocation,” journalist Max Blumenthal told Al Jazeera.
“They oppose the revolution and are aligned with Christian right groups who have an apocalyptic, theocratic agenda and who are inciting against Muslim-Americans,” Blumenthal said, adding, “They put Muslims in the US in danger, they put Copts in Egypt in danger, and they’re putting US diplomats in danger.”
YouTube clip blocked
The Afghan government on Wednesday temporarily blocked YouTube in an effort to discourage people from watching the clip. YouTube also blocked the video in Egypt, agency reports said.
In a statement issued on Wednesday, the company said: “We work hard to create a community everyone can enjoy and which also enables people to express different opinions.
“This can be a challenge because what’s OK in one country can be offensive elsewhere.
“This video – which is widely available on the web – is clearly within our guidelines and so will stay on YouTube. However, given the very difficult situation in Libya and Egypt we have temporarily restricted access in both countries.
“Our hearts are with the families of the people murdered in [Tuesday’s] attack in Libya.”
Observers say Google has grown more averse to removing videos. After its 2006 acquisition of YouTube, it was accused of censorship in several high-profile controversies.
“They’re squeezed on all sides,” said Rebecca MacKinnon, a fellow at the New America Foundation. “But because of pressure from a lot of people who feel they made the wrong decisions, they now generally err on the side of keeping things up.”
In recent years, Google has used technology to filter out videos in certain countries to comply with local regulations.
While consciously pursuing your spiritual development is commendable, joining an established religion such as Christianity, Islam, or Hinduism is one of the worst ways to go about it. In this article I’ll share 10 reasons why you must eventually abandon the baggage of organized religion if you wish to pursue conscious living in earnest.
Since Christianity is currently the world’s most popular religion, I’ll slant this article towards Christianity’s ubiquitous failings. However, you’ll find that most of these points apply equally well to other major religions (yes, even Buddhism).
1. Spirituality for dummies.
If you have the awareness level of a snail, and your thinking is mired in shame and guilt (with perhaps a twist of drug abuse or suicidal thinking), then subscribing to a religion can help you climb to a higher level of awareness. Your mindset, however, still remains incredibly dysfunctional; you’ve merely swapped one form of erroneous thinking for another.
For reasonably intelligent people who aren’t suffering from major issues with low self-esteem, religion is ridiculously consciousness-lowering. While some religious beliefs can be empowering, on the whole the decision to formally participate in a religion will merely burden your mind with a hefty load of false notions.
When you subscribe to a religion, you substitute nebulous group-think for focused, independent thought. Instead of learning to discern truth on your own, you’re told what to believe. This doesn’t accelerate your spiritual growth; on the contrary it puts the brakes on your continued conscious development. Religion is the off-switch of the human mind.
Leave the mythology behind, and learn to think for yourself. Your intellect is a better instrument of spiritual growth than any religious teachings.
2. Loss of spiritual depth perception.
One of the worst mistakes you can make in life is to attach your identity to any particular religion or philosophy, such as by saying “I am a Christian” or “I am a Buddhist.” This forces your mind into a fixed perspective, robbing you of spiritual depth perception and savagely curtailing your ability to perceive reality accurately. If that sounds like a good idea to you, you’ll probably want to gouge out one of your eyeballs too. Surely you’ll be better off with a single, fixed perspective instead of having to consider two separate image streams… unless of course you’ve become attached to stereo vision.
Religious “truths” are inherently rooted in a fixed perspective, but real truth is perspective-independent. When you substitute religious teachings for truth, you mistake shadows for light sources. Consequently, you doom yourself to stumble around in the dark, utterly confused. Clarity remains forever elusive, and the best answer you get is that life is one giant mystery. Religious mysteries, however, arise not from what is truly unknowable; they arise from the limitations of trying to understand reality from a fixed frame of reference.
A more intelligent approach is to consider reality through a variety of different perspectives without trying to force your perceptions into an artificial religious framework. If you wish to learn more about this approach, read Spiritual Depth Perception.
3. Engineered obedience training.
Religions are authoritarian hierarchies designed to dominate your free will. They’re power structures that aim to convince you to give away your power for the benefit of those who enjoy dominating people. When you subscribe to a religion, you enroll in a mindless minion training program. Religions don’t market themselves as such, but this is essentially how they operate.
Religions are very effective at turning human beings into sheep. They’re among the most powerful instruments of social conditioning. They operate by eroding your trust in your own intellect, gradually convincing you to put your trust into some external entity, such as a deity, prominent figure, or great book. Of course these instruments are usually controlled by those who administrate the minion training program, but they don’t have to be. Simply by convincing you to give your power away to something outside yourself, religion will condition you to be weaker, more docile, and easier to control. Religions actively promote this weakening process as if it were beneficial, commonly branding it with the word faith. What they’re actually promoting is submission.
Religions strive to fill your head with so much nonsense that your only recourse is to bow your head in submission, often quite literally. Get used to spending a lot of time on your knees because acts of submission such as bowing and kneeling are frequently incorporated into religious practice. Canine obedience training uses similar tactics. Now say, “Yes, Master.”
Have you ever wondered why religious teachings are invariably mysterious, confusing, and internally incongruent? This is no accident by the way — it’s quite intentional.
By putting forth confusing and internally conflicting information, your logical mind (i.e. your neocortex) is overwhelmed. You try in vain to integrate such contradictory beliefs, but it can’t be done. The net effect is that your logical mind disengages because it can’t find a pattern of core truth beneath all the nonsense, so without the help of your neocortex, you devolve to a more primitive (i.e. limbic) mode of thinking. You’re taught that this faith-based approach is a more spiritual and conscious way to live, but in reality it’s precisely the opposite. Getting you to distrust your own cerebral cortex actually makes you dumber and easier to manipulate and control. Karl Marx was right when he said, “Religion is the opiate of the people.”
For example, the Old Testament and the New Testament in the Bible frequently contradict each other with various rules of conduct, yet both are quoted during mass. Church leaders also behave in direct violation of the Church’s teachings, such as by covering up criminal and immoral activities by their own priests. Those who try to mentally process such glaring contradictions as coherent truth invariably suffer for it. A highly conscious person would reject membership in such an organization as patently ridiculous. So-called divine mysteries are engineered to be incomprehensible. You aren’t meant to ever make sense of them since that would defeat the whole purpose. When you finally wake up and realize it’s all B.S., you’ve taken the first step towards freedom from this oppressive system.
The truth is that so-called religious authorities don’t know any more about spirituality than you do. However, they know how to manipulate your fear and uncertainty for their own benefit. How nice of you to let them.
Although the most popular religions are very old, L. Ron Hubbard proved the process can be replicated from scratch in modern times. As long as there are large numbers of people who fear the responsibility of their own power, religions will continue to dominate the landscape of human development.
If you want to talk to God, then communicate directly instead of using third-party intermediaries. Surely God has no need of an interpreter. Don’t fall into the trap of becoming a mindless minion. It’s a mistake to think that turning off your neocortex and practicing mindless “faith” will bring you closer to God. In truth it will only bring you closer to dog.
4. Toilet-bowl time management.
If you devote serious time to the practice of religion, it’s safe to say you practice toilet-bowl time management, flushing much of your precious life down the drain with little or nothing to show for it.
First, you’ll waste a lot of time filling your head with useless nonsense. This includes reading some of the worst fiction ever written. Then there are various rules, laws, and practices to learn.
Seriously, if you have insomnia, try reading religious texts before bedtime. You’ll be asleep faster than you can say Methuselah. Why do you think hotels put Bibles next to the bed? It’s the greatest sedative known to man. I have to give props to the Scientologists for at least incorporating space aliens into their stories. It’s a shame Gene Roddenberry didn’t formally invent his own religion; Stovokor sounds like a lot of fun.
Once you finally realize your head has been filled with utter nonsense, you must then purge such garbage from your mind if you want your brain to be functional again. That can take considerably longer, assuming you succeed at all. It’s like trying to uninstall AOL from your hard drive.
Next, you can expect to waste even more time on repetitive ritual and ceremony, such as attending mass, learning prayers, and practicing unproductive meditations.
If I add up the time I attended mass and Sunday school, studied religion in school as if it were a serious subject, and memorized various prayers, I count thousands of hours of my life I’d love to have back. I did, however, learn some important lessons, many of which are being shared in this article.
I especially remember listening to a lot of bad sermons; most priests are hideously poor speakers. Maybe it’s because they drink alcohol while on duty.
Now if you really go overboard and throw in learning a dead language for good measure, you can kiss years of your life goodbye.
The more time you devote to religious practice, the more you waste your life on pointless, dead-end pursuits… and the more you’ll want to delude yourself with a phony “Hehe, I meant to do that” attitude.
5. Support your local pedophile.
In addition to being a serious waste of time, religious practice can also be a huge waste of money.
For starters when you donate to a major religion, you support its expansion, which means you’re facilitating the enslavement of your fellow humans. That isn’t very nice, now is it? If you feel the urge to donate money, give it to a real and honorable cause, not a fabricated one. Better yet, go outside and do something that really helps people. If you can’t think of anything better, grab a can of paint and clean up some local graffiti.
Your religious donations fund freeloaders who mooch off society but who generally provide little or no value in return. Sure there are some religious people who perform valuable public services, but for the most part, that isn’t their bailiwick. These freeloaders typically operate tax-free, meaning they’re effectively subsidized by taxpayers. That’s a great racket if you’re on the receiving side… not so great if you’re funding it though.
Religions offer a suite of special services to generate additional income. They’ll spout some gibberish while feeding you a crusty wafer, pronounce you bonded to a fellow human being, snip some of your excess skin, pour water on your head, proclaim your manhood, cast out your demons, pronounce your transgressions forgiven, and so on. When they can’t think of anything else, they make up some drivel like confirming you’re still loyal to them. The bill may read “suggested donation,” but it’s still a bill.
When you donate money to a religious organization, you’re doing much worse than throwing your money away. You’re actively funding evil. If you think that spending a billion dollars to defend pedophiles and rapists is a good use of your hard-earned cash, perhaps you should run for Pope. You could hardly do worse. At least Wall Street is honest about its greed and lust.
One of my Catholic high school teachers was later revealed to be a repeat child molester… written up in the newspaper and everything. I didn’t see any suspicious behavior at the time, and to be totally honest, I actually liked that teacher and was shocked to learn of his extracurricular activities. He was shuffled from one location to another by those who knew about his appetite for young flesh. I’m glad I wasn’t on the menu, but I feel sad for those who were. Methinks God should raise his standards… just a tad.
Why aren’t Catholic priests allowed to marry? This has nothing to do with what’s written in the Bible or with any benefits of celibacy. This rule was invented by the Church to prevent their priests from producing heirs. When the priests died, their property would go back to the Church, thereby enriching the rich even more. Apparently God needed more cash. It was a very effective policy, as the Church is now among the richest and most powerful organizations on earth. It’s hard to fail when you have a loyal force of lifetime indentured servants who work cheaply and then yield their life savings to you when they die.
Lay religious people (i.e. non-clergy), on the other hand, are encouraged to have lots of babies because that means more people are born into the religion, which means more money and a bigger power base. Condoms are a big no-no; they’re bad for business. Marriage is a big yes; it means more brainwashed babies will be made.
Would you seriously consider this sort of structure a “good cause” worthy of your hard-earned cash?
I have got to get me one of these…
6. Incest is best.
Religions frequently promote inbred social networks. You’re encouraged to spend more time with people who share the same belief system while disengaging from those with incompatible beliefs. Sometimes this is done subtly; other times it’s more obvious.
If you’re one of the saved, blessed, or otherwise enlightened individuals who stumbled upon the one true belief system, then supposedly everyone else remains in the dark. Certain religions are overtly intolerant of outsiders, but to one degree or another, all major religions cast non-subscribers in a negative light. This helps to discourage members from abandoning the religion while still enabling them to proselytize. The main idea is to maintain social structures that reward loyalty and punish freedom of thought.
This us-vs-them prejudice is totally incongruent with conscious living. It’s also downright moronic from a global perspective. But it remains a favored practice of those who pull the strings. When you’re taught to distrust other human beings, fear gets a foothold in your consciousness, and you become much easier to control.
When you join a religion, your fellow mind-slaves will help to keep you in line, socially rewarding your continued obedience while punishing your disloyalty. Why do they do this? It’s what they’ve been conditioned to do. Tell your religious friends that you’re abandoning their religion because you want to think for yourself for a while, and watch the sparks fly. Suddenly you’ve gone from best friend to evil demon. There’s no greater threat to religious people than to profess your desire to think for yourself.
There are better ways to enjoy a sense of community than joining a slavery club. Try making friends with conscious, free-thinking people for a change — people who are willing to connect with you regardless of how silly your beliefs are. You may find it intimidating at first, but it’s quite refreshing once you get used to it.
Since I get asked this question all the time, I might as well answer it publicly. Do I accept Jesus Christ as my personal savior? No more than I’d accept a credit card from Crapital One. Either way I’d be worried about the fine print. Does this mean we can’t be friends anymore? Please don’t hate me because I’m doomed.
7. Idiocy or hypocrisy – pick one.
When you subscribe to an established religion, you have only two options. You can become an idiot, or you can become a hypocrite. If you’ve already chosen the former, I’ll explain why, and I’ll use small words so that you’re sure to understand.
First, there’s the idiocy route. You can willingly swallow all of the contrived, man-made drivel that’s fed to you. Accept that the earth is only 10,000 years old. Believe stories about dead bodies coming back to life. Learn about various deities and such. Put your trust in someone who thinks they know what they’re talking about. Eat your dogma. Good boy!
Congratulations! You’re a moron believer. You’ll be saved, enlightened, and greeted with tremendous fanfare when you die… unless of course all the stuff you were taught turns out not to be true. Nah… if the guy in the robe says it’s true, it must be true. Ya gotta have faith, right?
Next, we have the hypocrisy option. In this case your neocortex is strong enough to identify various bits of utter nonsense in the religious teachings that others are trying to ram down your throat. You have a working B.S. detector, but it’s slightly damaged. You’re smart enough to realize that earth is probably a lot older than 10,000 years and that pre-marital (or non-marital) sex is a lot of fun, but some B.S. still gets through. You don’t swallow all the bull, but you still identify yourself as a follower of a particular religion, most likely because you were raised in it and never actually chose it to begin with.
To you it’s just a casual pursuit. You’re certainly not a die-hard fundamentalist, but you figure that if you drink the wine and chew the wafer now and then, it’s good enough to get you a free ride into a half-decent afterlife. You belong to the pro-God club. Surely there’s safety in numbers. Two people can’t be wrong… although 4-1/2 billion supposedly can.
In this case you become an apologist for your own religion. You don’t want to be identified with the extreme fanatics, nor do you want to be associated with the non-believers. You figure you can straddle both sides. On earth you’ll basically live as a non-practitioner (or a very sloppy and inconsistent practitioner), but when you eventually die, you’ve still got the membership card to show God.
Do you realize how deluded you are?
Perhaps if you have to throw out so much of the nonsense to make your chosen belief system palatable, you shouldn’t be drinking the Kool Aid in the first place. Free yourself from the mental baggage, stop looking to others for permission to live, and start thinking on your own. If your God exists, he’s smart enough to see through your fake ID.
From time to time, some of my readers take a stab at converting me to their religion. Most of them come across as total loons, but I can at least respect their consistency. I’ve no idea why they bother to read my site (which is about raising, not lowering, consciousness). Perhaps some of them are getting ready to convert from fundamentalism to common sense.
You’d think I’d be quite a prize for any serious religion. With 2.4 million monthly readers, that’s a lot of people I could potentially enslave convert, not to mention how much I could fill the Church coffers by soliciting indulgences donations on their behalf. Henceforth I expect a much better conversion effort. If you won’t do it for the money, then do it for the souls. You can’t let so many of us go to hell without trying in earnest to save us, can you?
Just keep those conversion emails below 10,000 words if possible, with no more than 9,000 of them quoted from your favorite great book.
8. Inherited falsehood.
Please tell me you aren’t still practicing the religion you happened to be born into? Surely you’ve outgrown your baby clothes by now. Isn’t it time you also outgrew your baby religion?
What if you were born into a different culture? Would you have been conscious enough to find your way back to your current belief system? Or are your current beliefs merely a product of your environment and not the result of conscious choice?
Many religions are just a mish-mash of what came before. For example, Christianity is largely based on pagan rituals. If those pagan beliefs and rituals had been protected by copyright, Christianity wouldn’t even exist. If you take the time to dig into the roots of Christianity, you’ll encounter various theories that Christianity’s teachings were largely assembled from pre-Christian myths and that Jesus himself was merely a fictional character pieced together from earlier mythical figures. You go, Horus!
Many religious teachers (i.e. priests, rabbis, ministers, etc.) are just brainwashed slaves themselves. They don’t have any real authority and aren’t even aware of the agenda being set by their superiors. This makes them better minions because they actually believe the B.S. they’re spouting and don’t know the truth behind it. A priest, a rabbi, and a minister walk into a bar, but that’s as far as they get. They may interact with the bartender, but they never get to know the guy who owns the bar. They suffer from inherited falsehood just like everyone else.
Is your religion based on the inspired word of God? No more than this article. Just because someone says their text is divinely inspired doesn’t mean it is. Anyone can claim divine inspiration. The top religions are decided by popularity, not by truth.
Even the central figures in major religions didn’t follow the religions that were spawned in their names. If they didn’t swallow the prevailing “wisdom” about gods and spiritual leaders and such, why should you? If you want to be more like the people you worship, then follow their lead by striking out on your own.
Move beyond your baby religion. Consider maturity as a reasonable alternative.
9. Compassion in chains.
Religious rules and laws invariably hamper the development of conscience. This causes all sorts of problems like pointless violence and warfare. Those who preach nonviolence as a rule or law tend to be the most violent of all. Such people cannot be trusted because they’ll violate their proclaimed values with the weakest of excuses.
When you externalize compassion into a set of rules and laws, what you’re left with isn’t compassion at all. True compassion is a matter of conscious choice, and that requires the absence of force-backed rules and laws.
The more religious a person becomes, the less compassionate s/he is. The illusion of compassion substitutes for the real thing. Religious people tend to be the most bigoted and non-accepting people on earth. They’re the least trustworthy and suffer from the grossest character defects. They pretend they’re doing good, but they’re really collaborators in a system designed to push people into unconscious slavery to a “higher” authority. They are slaves promoting slavery.
Historically speaking, religious people love to fight each other. Instead of unconditional love, they practice conditional loyalty. The only unconditional aspect is their thirst for blood. If you disagree with them, you’re a target… either for conversion or destruction (both of which are really the same thing).
If you value the ideal of unconditional love, you won’t find it in the practice of religion. Real compassion doesn’t arise from believing in God, from practicing various rituals, or from studying the concept of karma. Compassion can only result from conscious choice, and this requires the freedom to choose without the threat of punishment or the promise of reward. If you’re obedient to your faith, it’s a safe bet that compassion is absent from your life. You probably don’t even know what real compassion feels like.
The more we collectively abandon all religion, the better off this planet will be. This doesn’t mean we have to abandon all spiritual pursuits. It just means we must stop turning spirituality into something it isn’t.
10. Faith is fear.
Religion is the systematic marketing of fear.
Blessed are the poor (donate heavily). Blessed are the meek (obey). Blessed are the humble (don’t question authority). Blessed are the hungry (make us rich while you starve). Blessed are the merciful (if you catch us doing something wrong, let it go). Blessed are the pure of heart (switch off your brain). Blessed are the timid, the cowardly, the fearful. Blessed are those who give us their power and become our slaves. Muahahaha!
That’s the kind of nonsense religion pushes on people. They train you to turn your back on courage, strength, and conscious living. This is stupidity, not divinity.
Religion will teach you to fear being different, to fear standing up for yourself, and to fear being an independent thinker. It will erode your self-trust by explaining why you’re unable to successfully manage life on your own terms: You are unworthy. You’re a sinner. You’re unclean. You belong to a lesser caste. You are not enlightened. Of course the solution is always the same — submit to the will of an external authority. Believe that you’re inadequate. Give away your power. Follow their rules and procedures. Live in fear for the rest of your life, and hope it will all turn out okay in the end.
When you practice faith instead of conscious living, you live under a cloak of fear. Eventually that cloak becomes so habitual you forget it’s even there. It’s very sad when you reach the point where you can’t even remember what it feels like to wield creative freedom over your own life, independent of what you’ve been conditioned to believe.
Faith is the coward’s substitute for courage. It’s also really good marketing if you’re the one who controls the faith. If you’re afraid or unwilling to assume total responsibility for your life, you’re a perfect match for religion.
Fear in one part of your life invariably spreads to all other parts — you can’t compartmentalize it. If you find yourself frustrated because you’re too afraid to follow your dreams, to talk to members of the opposite sex, to speak up for yourself, etc., then a good place to start is to rid your life of all religious nonsense. Don’t let fear get a foothold in your consciousness.
Stop trying to comfort yourself by swallowing religious rubbish. If you really need something to believe in, then believe in your own potential. Put your trust in your own intellect. Stop giving away your power.
Dump the safety-in-numbers silliness. Just because a lot of people believe stupid stuff doesn’t mean it isn’t stupid. It just means that stupidity is popular on this planet. When people are in a state of fear, they’ll swallow just about anything to comfort themselves, including the bastion of stupidity known as religion.
Religion is spiritual immaturity.
It’s entirely possible to enjoy your life without spending so much of it bent over in submission. Pull your head out of your rear, and look around with your own two eyes. If you need something to worship, then feel grateful for your own conscious mind. Pull it out of the cobwebs, and boot it up.
Besides… if some popular religious version of God does exist, there’s a good chance he’s a complete and total idiot. He made us in his image, right? So perhaps we shouldn’t be so quick to worship an entity so lacking in intelligence. We’re better off on our own.
God isn’t going to smite you for not formally worshiping him. If he didn’t smite me by now, it’s a safe bet you’ll slide beneath the radar as well. And if that doesn’t work, you can borrow my fake ID. I’ve been baptized and confirmed, and I’m the son of an altar boy and the nephew of a priest, so I’m sure I’ll be fine.
We have previously published a variety of lists on strange religious practices, religions you never knew existed, and weird cults, but not a list of bizarre religions. This list is designed to fill the gap by discussing ten religions that most of us have not heard of (for good reason as you will see). Be sure to use the comments to tell us about any other bizarre religions and, especially, your own experiences of them.
Scientology has featured on a previous list, but if I didn’t include it here the comments would be inundated with “where’s scientology?” questions. The Church of Scientology is a cult created by L Ron Hubbard (Elron) in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system called Dianetics. The Church of Scientology holds that at the higher levels of initiation (OT levels) mystical teachings are imparted that may be harmful to unprepared readers. These teachings are kept secret from members who have not reached these levels. In the OT levels, Hubbard explains how to reverse the effects of past-life trauma patterns that supposedly extend millions of years into the past. Among these advanced teachings is the story of Xenu (sometimes Xemu), introduced as an alien ruler of the “Galactic Confederacy.” According to this story, 75 million years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and detonated hydrogen bombs in the volcanoes. The thetans then clustered together, stuck to the bodies of the living, and continue to do this today. Scientologists at advanced levels place considerable emphasis on isolating body thetans and neutralizing their ill effects.
The Creativity Movement (formerly known as World Church Of The Creator), is a white separatist organization that advocates the whites-only religion, Creativity. It was also a descriptive phrase used by Ben Klassen, that included all adherents of the religion. The use of the term creator does not refer to a deity, but rather to themselves (white people). Despite the former use of the word Church in its name, the movement is atheistic. Creativity is a White Separatist religion that was founded by Ben Klassen in early 1973 under the name Church of the Creator. After Klassen’s death in 1993, Creativity almost died out as a religion until the New Church of the Creator was established three years later by Matthew F. Hale as its Pontifex Maximus (high priest), until his incarceration in January 2003 for plotting with the movement’s head of security, Anthony Evola (an FBI informant), to murder a federal judge.
Obviously spelling is not a fundamental part of this religion! Thee Temple ov Psychick Youth (TOPY) was founded in 1981 by members of Psychic TV, Coil, Current 93, and a number of other individuals. The ever-evolving network is a loosely federated group of people operating as a unique blend of artistic collective, and practitioners of magic. TOPY is dedicated to the manifestation of magical concepts lacking mysticism or the worship of gods. The group focuses on the psychic and magical aspects of the human brain linked with “guiltless sexuality”. Throughout its existence, TOPY has been an influential group in the underground Chaos magic scene and in the wider western occult tradition. TOPY’s research has covered both Left-hand path and Right-hand path magick, various elements of psychology, art, music, and a variety of other media. Some of the influences on the network have been Aleister Crowley, Austin Osman Spare, and Brion Gysin.
The Nation of Yahweh is a predominantly African-American religious group that is the most controversial offshoot of the Black Hebrew Israelites line of thought. They were founded in 1979 in Miami by Hulon Mitchell, Jr., who went by the name Yahweh ben Yahweh. Their goal is to return African Americans, whom they see as the original Israelites, to Israel. The group departs from mainstream Christianity and Judaism by accepting Yahweh ben Yahweh as the Son of God. In this way, their beliefs are unique and distinct from that of other known Black Hebrew Israelite groups. The group has engendered controversy due to legal issues of its founder and has also faced accusations of being a black supremacist cult by the Southern Poverty Law Center and The Miami Herald. The SPLC has criticized the beliefs of the Nation of Yahweh as racist, stating that the group believed blacks are “the true Jews” and that whites were “white devils.” They also claim the group believed Yahweh ben Yahweh had a Messianic mission to vanquish whites and that they held views similar to the Christian Identity movement.
The Church of All Worlds is a neo-pagan religion founded in 1962 by Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and his wife Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart. The religion evolved from a group of friends and lovers who were in part inspired by a fictional religion of the same name in the science fiction novel Stranger in a Strange Land by Robert A. Heinlein; the church’s mythology includes science fiction to this day. They recognize “Gaea,” the Earth Mother Goddess and the Father God, as well as the realm of Faeries and the deities of many other pantheons. Many of their ritual celebrations are centered on the gods and goddesses of ancient Greece. Following the tradition of using fiction as a basis for his ideas, Zell-Ravenheart recently founded The Grey School of Wizardry inspired in part by Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, the school in the Harry Potter novels.
Universe people or Cosmic people of light powers (Czech: Vesmírní lidé sil světla) is a Czech religious movement centered around Ivo A. Benda. Its belief system is based upon the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations communicating with Benda and other “contacters” since October 1997 telepathically and later even by direct personal contact. According to Benda those civilizations operate a fleet of spaceships, led by Ashtar Sheran, orbiting the Earth. They closely watch and help the good and are waiting to transport their followers into another dimension. The Universe People’s teachings incorporate various elements from ufology (some foreign “contacters” are credited, though often also renounced after a time as misguided or deceptive), Christianity (Jesus was a “fine-vibrations” being) and conspiracy theories (forces of evil are supposed to plan compulsory chipping of the population).
The Church of the SubGenius is a parody religion that promotes slack, while in a meta-commentarial way, satirizes religion, conspiracy theories, UFOs, and popular culture. The church claims to have been founded in the 1950s by the “world’s greatest salesman” J. R. “Bob” Dobbs. “Bob” Dobbs is depicted as a cartoon of a Ward Cleaver-like man smoking a pipe. The church really started with the publication of SubGenius Pamphlet #1 in 1979. It found acceptance in underground pop-culture circles and has been embraced on college campuses, in the underground music scene, and on the Internet. An important SubGenius event occurred on July 5, 1998: X-Day. The Church had been predicting that on this day the world would be destroyed by invading alien armies known as the X-ists (which is short for “Men from Planet X”). When the event didn’t come to pass, the church administrator who predicted it was tarred and feathered – but allowed to continue on as administrator. Paul Reubens (Pee-wee Herman) is a SubGenius minister. Patrick Volkerding, the founder and maintainer of Slackware Linux, is also a SubGenius affiliate, and he has confirmed the Church and “Bob” inspired the name for Slackware.
The Prince Philip Movement is a cargo cult of the Yaohnanen tribe on the southern island of Tanna in Vanuatu. The Yaohnanen believe that Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the consort to Queen Elizabeth II, is a divine being, the pale-skinned son of a mountain spirit and brother of John Frum. According to ancient tales the son travelled over the seas to a distant land, married a powerful lady and would in time return. The villagers had observed the respect accorded to Queen Elizabeth II by colonial officials and came to the conclusion that her husband, Prince Philip, must be the son from their legends. When the cult formed is unclear, but it is likely that it was sometime in the 1950s or 1960s. Their beliefs were strengthened by the royal couple’s official visit to Vanuatu in 1974 when a few villagers had the opportunity to observe the prince from afar. Prince Philip was made aware of the religion and has exchanged gifts with its leaders and even visited them.
The Church of Euthanasia (CoE), is a political organization started by the Reverend Chris Korda (pictured above) in the Boston, Massachusetts area of the United States. According to the church’s website, it is “a non-profit educational foundation devoted to restoring balance between Humans and the remaining species on Earth.” The CoE uses sermons, music, culture jamming, publicity stunts and direct action combined with an underlying sense of satire and black humor to highlight Earth’s unsustainable population. The CoE is notorious for its conflicts with Pro-life Christian activists. According to the church’s website, the one commandment is “Thou shalt not procreate”. The CoE further asserts four principal pillars: suicide, abortion, cannibalism (“strictly limited to consumption of the already dead”), and sodomy (“any sexual act not intended for procreation”). Slogans employed by the group include “Save the Planet, Kill Yourself”, “Six Billion Humans Can’t Be Wrong”, and “Eat a Queer Fetus for Jesus”, all of which are intended to mix inflammatory issues to unnerve those who oppose abortion and homosexuality.
Nuwaubianism is an umbrella term used to refer to the doctrines and teachings of the followers of Dwight York. The Nuwaubians originated as a Black Muslim group in New York in the 1970s, and have gone through many changes since. Eventually, the group established a headquarters in Putnam County, Georgia in 1993, which they have since abandoned. York is now in prison after having been convicted on money laundering and child molestation charges, but Nuwaubianism endures. York developed Nuwaubianism by drawing on a wide range of sources which include Theosophy-derived New Age movements such as Astara as well as the Rosicrucians, Freemasonry, the Shriners, the Moorish Science Temple of America, the revisionist Christianity & Islam and the Qadiani cult of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the numerology of Rashad Khalifa, and the ancient astronaut theories of Zecharia Sitchin. White people are said in one Nuwaubian myth to have been originally created as a race of killers to serve blacks as a slave army, but this plan went awry. Here is a list of some of the more unusual Nuwaubian beliefs:
1. It is important to bury the afterbirth so that Satan does not use it to make a duplicate of the recently-born child
2. Furthermore, some aborted fetuses survive their abortion to live in the sewers, where they are being gathered and organized to take over the world
3. People were once perfectly symmetrical and ambidextrous, but then a meteorite struck Earth and tilted its axis causing handedness and shifting the heart off-center in the chest
4. Each of us has seven clones living in different parts of the world
5. Women existed for many generations before they invented men through genetic manipulation
6. Homo sapiens is the result of cloning experiments that were done on Mars using Homo erectus
7. Nikola Tesla came from the planet Venus
8. The Illuminati have nurtured a child, Satan’s son, who was born on 6 June 1966 at the Dakota House on 72nd Street in New York to Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis of the Rothschild/Kennedy families. The Pope was present at the birth and performed necromantic ceremonies. The child was raised by former U.S. president Richard Nixon and now lives in Belgium, where it is hooked up bodily to a computer called “The Beast 3M” or “3666.”
The Nuwaubians built a city modeled on Ancient Egyptian buildings in Putnam County, Georgia (pictured above). It has now been demolished.
by Jonathan Rubell
Mutabaruka is a dub poet/revolutionary/Rastafarian, although neither just one, nor the other. Although he is classified as a ‘dub poet’, Muta challenges this generalization with the meaning behind his words. Throughout this essay an examination of Mutabaruka’s history, religious views, and poetry will take place. Through these attributes, Muta’s character is exposed, as well as his cutting-edge ideas, which will never be erased.
Looking at Mutabaruka’s life from a historical aspect is integral to understanding his poetry. Muta was born in Rae Town, Kingston in December of 1952. After his elementary education, Muta attended Kingston Technical High School pursuing electronics. Marcus Garvey’s son, was among the faculty of Muta’s vocational school. Muta took a job at the Jamaica Telephone Company after his studies, and during this time began to find resonance with the Black Power movement in late 1960s. Rastafarianism was something that Mutabaruka discovered in the 1970s, as he was brought up as a Roman Catholic.
Muta’s drift toward Black Consciousness and Rastafarianism was not accidental. During school, he read quite a few “progressive” books, one being, The Autobiography of Malcom X, which was illegal in Jamaica at that time. Even though Mutabaruka has come to identify with Rastafarianism in a radical light, he did not always feel this way. His views of Rastafarianism turned from a passive to extremely cutting edge and radical interpretation. While he was still working for the telephone company, he declared himself Rastafarian. He received little empathy from his friends and co-workers at the telephone company when he began to grow locks and eat food based on Rastafarian doctrine. Muta left his job at the telephone company in 1974 and moved to the Potosi District, St. James to live and cultivate food. In the Potosi District, he changed his name from Allan Hope to ‘Mutabaruka’, which from Rwanda meaning, “one who is always victorious.”
Muta was hired by the Negril Beach Village to discuss Jamaican culture with the tourists. This enabled him to share some of his radical thoughts and beliefs with outsiders. Eventually, Muta began sharing his poetry as well. American college students responded with enthusiasm and interest to his poetry, and due to some negotiating and publicity from an agent, Muta began to book gigs regularly in the United States eventually reaching audiences all over the world.
To reiterate, Mutabaruka cannot be classified by: dub poet. His form of artistic expression often transcends that of poetry or dub music. This may result in him speaking about one of his poems or even about a single theme. Muta describes his art as, “[moving] away from as a poet speaking to a audience and become more a part of that whole communication thing.” For Mutabaruka poetry is one of many vehicles used to convey a message. Dub poetry is a means of artistic communication, by spoken word over a dub track, however it is something that fundamentally differs from rap. According to Mutabaruka,
“for the dub poet, the poems he writes are not necessarily focused on rhythms, but on contents. It’s not the music that’s pushing the poem, it’s what he’s saying. So the dub poet is more focused on what’s being said rather than on what the rhythm is doing, as opposed to the deejay, who is also a poet, but the deejay is concerned with rhyming. So he’s contented with moving to the beat. With the poet, the beat is moving to
his words. The first move of the poet is the word. The first move of the deejay is the riddim. So the poet tends to be more socially, politically aware of certain situations and the music frames it in a way that is not necessarily rhythamatic. I can be rhythamatic. We can go on rhythms and move to the rhythm and ride poems to the rhythm, but, as I said, most of the time, the poems are written before the rhythm.” 
For Mutabaruka, it’s all about the words, the message, the meaning. The dub track plays its role, as a frame, but as Muta describes the poems or the words as coming first.
In this light, dub poetry is only a form or a subcategory of poetry. It may communicate differently with an audience than poetry in spoken form, beat poetry, or written poetry incorporating rhythm, sounds, the audience, and movement. Underneath all of this, dub poetry is all about the meaning.
“I’m a poet. I’m a poet first. The words is why reggae music is big. It’s not the music itself. The music is good but it’s because of what it is said in the music. Over the years people recognize Bob Marley lyrics as a liberatin’ music, as a upliftin’ music. So it’s really what he was saying ,- what he is saying. That’s why I don’t try to sing. I can’t sing but I can speak. And when we speak the poetry we hope that people listen.”
Muta brings up an interesting point about listening. In dub poetry, the audience plays the most important role. Muta communicates in the language of the people, Patois, because his messages are meant (initially) for the people of Jamaica. Through art, his messages reach even further, encompassing themes and ideas that may be translated to another group of people or person. “So my intention is to really awaken the conscience and the consciousness of the people.” The audience contributes such a unique aspect to Muta’s work because they don’t have to agree or disagree with his words, just think.
Since Mutabaruka’s intention is to ‘awaken the conscience’, he welcomes a differing opinion. Muta’s willingness to discuss religion with Ian Boyne on the television show “Religious Hardtalk” is incredible, especially after the intro Boyne gives him. “Mutabaruka, the controversial one. The cutting-edge one. The one who has been a thorn in the side of Christians for many years…He has attacked Christianity mercilessly, he has rejected the bible, rejecting all the sacred tenements of Christianity…” Muta’s smirk gets picked up by the cameras after such an introduction. Despite the clear distinction in beliefs between Mutabaruka and Ian Boyne, they both let each other share varying opinions on religion.
Religion might be the wrong word to describe what Rastafarianism is to Mutabaruka. “To Muta now, Rastafarianism is part of a universal quest which may also be pursued by other routes, such as Hinduism or Buddhism.” His disapproval seems to reside in that of institutionalized religion.
The bible, according to Mutabaruka, is not the word of God, but as described to Ian Boyne, “man, and him quest for understand himself.” Mutabaruka looks at religion from an extremely unique perspective, because he views it similarly. Rastafarianism from his perspective, is a way of life that allows him to understand himself and make sense of the world.
Although Muta’s messages can be perceived as conflicted according to Christian doctrine, Muta exposes numerous conflicts within the Judeo-Christian framework. His religious philosophy is very complex, as it evokes certain aspects of Christianity while at the same time proves it to be incorrect. His views are compiled by many philosophies, and Muta believes he has come to his own understanding, chosen the proper path for himself. When Ian Boyne asked him why he didn’t follow Christ even though Haile Selassie believes in him, Muta’s response shed light on a philosophically complex idea.
“I find something in Hailie Selasie that I see, why is it important that I must believe in what Hailie Selasie believe in?—I believe in Hailie Selasie… If my mother is ideal, and she’s a soldier, and she’s a police, and she attributes certain things, and I come and take from my mother certain attributes that I can draw from that, why must I believe in what she believe in, to come to an understanding for myself? It is through she.”
Mutabaruka uses a great poetic device to describe his relationship to Haile Selassie. Muta’s mastery of language is evident in his speech, and even more so in his poetry. Most of all, the ‘attributes’ he draws through religion and observation are eminent throughout his poems.
He points out that for many religions, the answers to the questions lie outside of man, outside of human understanding. His understanding comes from the opposite direction, within. “You have to look within man to find the reality of life and what life really mean. So when man is him good, him say is God, and when man is him bad, him say is the devil, but is really man still. So all concepts of good and bad is coming from man is emanate from man.” Most of the controversy in Mutabaruka’s religious philosophies lies in his non-belief in Jesus.
Mutabaruka’s radio show “The Cutting Edge” on Irie-FM takes a lot of heat from many people in Jamaica for publically stating that they don’t believe in Jesus. Muta is sympathetic to their reaction because the idea of Jesus is, “embedded in the minds of the people inna Jamaica.” Once again, Muta uses the perfect word to describe the idea of Jesus. ‘Embedded’ implies that Jesus was not always part of the religious beliefs of the people of Jamaica/Africa. It also implies that this idea was put in place by someone, or something else. Along with this, he and his radio station challenge the idea of Rastafarianism, and set it in a new light. They drift closer to the interpretation than literal side of Rasta according to Muta’s response in the Doumerc interview. The African-centred perspective is critical to understanding Mutabaruka’s worldview, as he sees himself as African in Jamaica. By tying his religious beliefs in with this, Muta’s intention with “The Cutting Edge” is to educate the people of Jamaica to better understand their place, their heritage, their history, and what they can do about it.
For the most part, Mutabaruka is preaching religious freedom, meaning freedom to break the bonds of traditional religious interpretations. He asks the difficult questions and analyzes them to the best of his ability. His efforts to challenge himself as well as the accepted views of others are reflected in his poetry. Through language, Muta successfully communicates his matrix of beliefs, values, and ideas, a nearly unattainable task.
One of Mutabaruka’s most discussed poems is titled, “Dis Poem.” It is a poem containing an intimidating number of themes, ideas, and critiques. It will blow your mind every time it’s read. The poem is structure-less on paper, lacking stanzas and punctuation. Repetition is evident by glancing at the shape, without reading the words. The poem’s impression changes dramatically when spoken by Mutabaruka. The power with which Muta speaks can be felt even through a video recording.
He begins deliberately, yet there is a matter-of-factness to his voice, when he says, “dis poem.” Immediately, he evokes the slave trade using images of slave ships and families getting torn apart. The next portion of the poem utilizes a self-referential device, drawing attention to the poem through the line, “dis poem…” while also referencing the piece by its title. This happens on many accounts during this poem, emphasizing the piece’s ability to stand alone, exist without a creator. The words, become part of the listener, and still hold their value after Muta’s speaking has commenced.
The way he brings up themes in this poem is unusual, as Muta lists the things on his mind. He does not detract from his message or rather the poem’s message by complicating the language around each idea. The next lines reference the poem in a broad aspect. “time unlimited time undefined” invokes an idea beyond human understanding, the poem already has the listener thinking, asking questions.
The poem’s next line puts on a structural façade, with “dis poem shall call names”, implying an action that will happen in the future. Immediately Muta calls the names, Lumuba (the first elected Prime Minister of Congo, who was assassinated in 1961), Kenyatta (the first Prime Minister of independent Kenya), Nkurma (lead Ghana after it gained independence in 1957), Hannibal (the African warrior that waged war against Rome in 218 B.C.E.), Ahkenaton (Egyptian pharaoh and the predecessor of Tutankamen—forced Egyptian priests out of power by challenging the accepted religious beliefs), Malcom (Malcom X advocated for African American rights), Garvey (Marcus Garvey, architect of the Pan African Philosophy and advocate of Black rights), and Haile Selassie (His Imperial Majesty of Ethiopia). These men have been written into the poem for a few reasons. They all represent, in philosophy or form, African identity, freedom from oppression, and human rights. Also, they are Muta’s inspiration for his words and beliefs. “Dis Poem” would not hold the same meaning without the mention of these leaders. Without explicitly mentioning these philosophies, Muta invokes them with by the simple act of naming names.
He begins discussing racism and fascism. The apartheid is brought up as well as the Klu Klux Klan. An interesting aspect of this section lies in the line beginning with, “dis poem is vexed…” Muta allows the poem to be almost personified, as if it can feel, become vexed. This theme, that the poem is human, is part of the audience, runs throughout. It also separates the poem from Mutabaruka’s opinion, as the poem itself has an opinion.
Jim Jones is brought up (Creator of the People’s Temple. Haphazardly organized a mass suicide in 1978 resulting in the demise of over 900 people including over 200 children.) His name is deliberately placed among the KKK and apartheid. For Muta, Jim Jones’ religious beliefs are preposterous, the antithesis of Mutabaruka’s message.
Once again the poem is personified, as it revolts against the categories of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd world. Muta recognizes these as man-made categories created by people in power. The scattered nature of the poem (from Jim Jones to classifications) becomes very apparent around this part. This is another human trait added to the fabric of the words. Like we humans, the poem does not express itself in a methodical way.
The poem returns to a discussion of itself, and what it will not be. Ironically, the attributes it denies having, are exactly what the poem turns into. The ideas of being among “great literary works”, “recited by poetry enthusiasts”, and “quoted by politicians” or religious people, play with the listener’s wit, as well as underscore the importance of the poem as a whole. This acts as a diegetic device, implying that these actions will happen outside of the poem or narrative. Muta then represents the poem as a weapon, “dis poem s knives bombs guns blood fire” used to achieve freedom. African tribes, who fought their colonizers, are brought up. The poem chants “uhuru uhuru” meaning “freedom, freedom” (in Swahili) and adorns it for Nambia, Soweto (South Africa), and eventually Mother Africa.
The poem slips back into itself, denouncing itself, correcting itself. It sheds more light on the poems intention, “a rebirth of a people / arizin awaking understanding.” This is central to Mutabaruka’s view of institutionalized religion or rather what needs to happen to its congregants. Once again, this idea moves past its listeners and has the ability to exist outside of the poem, without regard for time and space. Muta / the poem continues describing what will happen to the poem over time. “dis poem shall continue even when poets have stopped writin / dis poem shall survive you me it shall linger in history.” The poem will exist without the poet and for infinity. An interesting line about the character of the poem is, “dis poem has no poet.” This reflects the poem’s stand-alone existence. The thoughts and ideas presented in this poem were already there before Mutabaruka wrote them down, therefore Muta is not the author, but the compiler. In this respect, the poem is reminiscent of a dub track.
The next important section begins by alluding to a relationship with the listener. “dis poem is now ringin talking irritatin / makin you want to stop it.” The poem has already achieved its goal, as the ideas unfolding in the listener’s mind will not stop. After discussing the length and age of the poem, Muta cites his sources so to speak, “dis poem was copied from the bible your prayer book / playboy magazine the n.y. times readers digest / the c.i.a. files the k.g.b files.” This resonates with the idea that the inspiration for the poem comes from all aspects of life, from playboy to the bible. The end is conclusive to the poem itself, but the ideas of the poem are still gushing out of the audiences’ minds. “So I write “Dis Poem”, trying to make a collage of different aspects of the struggle, and it was getting too long, and I thought “I can’t write in that way, the poem will continue inna mi mind”. So I ended it that way:” “Dis poem will continue in your mind”. It is me, it is actually me I’m talking to! I’m talking to meself.” The poem does act like a ‘collage’ of Muta’s ideas, a glimpse into the mind of an extremely insightful philosopher/poet/dub musician.
Mutabaruka’s words may not resonate with every listener, yet they are words that need to be stated, questions that need to be asked. Muta is changing Jamaica and the world with his radio station and his performances. He embraces an intellectual struggle, that most people ignore, not only for his satisfaction but in an attempt to make the world a better place. Muta’s words are incredibly thought provoking, his sounds incredibly moving, but most of all, his talent as an artist will keep his ideas alive for a long time. He has an ability to reach out or identify with the people, his audience, because he is one among them.
Thanks for a great experience Tuna.
Morris, Mervyn. “Mutabaruka.” Critical Quarterly 38.4 (1996): 39-44. Critical Quarterly. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 28 Sept. 2007. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. <http://www-english.tamu.edu/pers/fac/muana/sum06dubpoetry5.pdf>
Morris, Mervyn. “Biography.” Mutabaruka.com.
Mutabarukuka, interviewed by Mervyn Morris, 24 March 1994, at ‘Food or Life’. Dumfries Road, Kingston.
Doumerc, Eric. “From Page-Poet to Recording Artist: Mutabaruka interviewd by Eric Doumerc.” The Journal of Commonwealth Literature 44.23 (2009). Web. <http://jcl.sagepub.com.ezproxy.uvm.edu/cgi/reprint/44/3/23>
Pelt, Carter V. “Mutabaruka: The ultimate Interview.” In Color (1998). <http://incolor.inebraska.com/cvanpelt/muta2.html>
“Mutabaruka.” Interview by Klaus Ludes. Classical Reggae Interviews. 1998. Web. <http://www.classical-reggae-interviews.org/index.htm>.
Boyne, Ian. Religious Hardtalk. Television Jamaica Ltd. TVJ, Jamaica. Youtube.com. Web.
Akermen, David. “Who Killed Lumuba.” BBC World News. 21 Oct. 2000. Web.
“Jomo Kenyatta.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 02 Nov. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/315185/Jomo-Kenyatta>.
“Commanding Heights : Kwame Nkrumah | on.” PBS. Web. Autumn 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/commandingheights/shared/minitext/prof_kwamenkrumah.html
“HANNIBAL, THE AFRICAN WARRIOR.” Sacramento California T1, DSL, ISDN Internet Service Provider – California ISP – CA ISP. Web. Autumn 2009. <http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/hannibal.html>.
“Akhenaten.” Ancient Egypt Online. Web. Autumn 2009. <http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/akhenaten.html>.
“Jim Jones’ People’s Temple.” ReligiousTolerance.org by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Web. 02 Dec. 2009. <http://www.religioustolerance.org/dc_jones.htm>.
Considering that Rita Marley shared her man with more women then Bob Marley could have possibly had children with, …most women would have dropped him like a hot potato. But someone advised her carefully and said…Bob is worth a lot of money dear. NEVER DIVORCE HIM! She now sits on about a $50 Million wallet…after fighting for it too. And even though she had an extra child while married and he, well you know, had many…she stayed. Look at what she had to deal with in the way of all the external children he brought home:
Bob Marley married Rita Anderson on February 10, 1966. Rita brought a daughter into the marriage (Sharon) from a previous relationship and although not officially acknowledged so did Bob (Imani).
The Marley’s together would have four children during their marriage. For those of you keeping score… Bob had eight more children with eight different women not including his wife Rita. Rita also had another child (Stephanie) as a result of an affair with another man during her marriage to Bob.. Rumor has it that there are several other “unclaimed” or “forgotten” children of Bob Marley, but to the best of our knowledge this is the complete list of Bob Marley’s children and mothers.
Imani Carole Marley born May 22, 1963 (with Cheryl Murray)
Imani is Bob’s first born child but for reasons unknown she is not acknowledged as such on the official Bob Marley website.
Sharon Marley born November 23, 1964 (adopted by Bob)
Sharon was born two years before Rita married Bob to an unnamed man but Bob adopted her as his own and she is offically recognized as one of his children.
Cedella Marley born August 23, 1967 (with Rita)
Cedella is Bob and Rita’s oldest child together and she was also part of the group Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers. Cedella who was named after Bob’s mother is a clothing designer and CEO of Tough Gong International.
David “Ziggy” Marley born October 17, 1968 (with Rita)
David Nesta “Ziggy” Marley is Bob’s oldest son and the front man of Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers.
Stephen Marley born April 20, 1972 (with Rita)
Stephen is Bob and Rita last child together and the fourth member of the band Ziggy Marley and the Melody Makers.
Robert “Robbie” Marley born May 16, 1972 (with Pat WIlliams)
Robbie was born less than a month after Stephen and was Bob’s first of many children not fathered by Rita. Not much is known about his mother Pat “Lucille” Williams as Robbie was brought to live with Bob and Rita. He is not a musician and has mostly stayed out of the spotlight as a motorcycle stunt rider.
Rohan Marley born May 19, 1972 (with Janet Hunt/Dunn)
Rohan was born just three days after brother Robbie and a month before brother Stephen. Not too much is known about Rohan’s mother Janet Hunt other than the fact that Rohan was also eventually brought to live with Bob and Rita at the age of four years because Janet was not caring properly for him. Rohan attended the same school as Ziggy and Stephen, but he was a trouble maker to the point that was sent to live with Bob’s mother Cedella Booker in Miami. He played linebacker at “The U” (The University of Miami) and is also notorious for having five children with singer Lauren Hill.
Karen Marley born 1973 (with Janet Bowen)
Karen, is the third biologocal daughter of Marley, she was born in England in 1973 to her mother Janet Bowen aka “Janet From England“. Karen grew up in Jamaica with the Marley’s and attended school with Stephanie.
Stephanie Marley born in 1974 (adopted by Bob)
Stephanie was born out of wedlock after Rita had an affair with a man named Ital. Bob adopted Stephanie and accepted her as his own and she is officially recognized as one of his children.
Julian Marley born June 4, 1975 (with Lucy Pounder)
Julian was born in London and raised by his mother, Lucy Pounder although she did bring Julian to visit the Marley’s in Jamaica and Miami. He is a singer, songwriter, producer and self-taught musician with three albums to his credit, most recently 2009′s Grammy-nominated album Awake.
Ky-Mani Marley born February 26, 1976 (with Anita Belnavis)
Ky-Mani was born in Jamaica to Bob’s then-girlfriend Anita Belnavis, a Caribbean table tennis champion, and raised in inner-city Miami. Ky-Mani was initially more interested in sports than in making music, but that all changed when he discovered a knack for rapping and singing and released his debut album, Like Father Like Son, in 1996.
Damian Marley born July 21, 1978 (with Cindy Breakspeare)
Damian mother was 1976 Miss World Cindy Breakspeare and one of Bob’s most known about girlfriends. Damian is nicknamed “Jr. Gong” after his father. and is a dancehall reggae artist and Grammy Award winner. In 2010 he teamed up with Nas on the collaborative album Distant Relatives, which bridged the gap between dancehall and hip-hop.
Madeka Marley born May 30, 1981 (with Yvette Crichton)
Makeda Jahnesta Marley was born to Yvette Crichton in 1981 in Miami mere weeks after Bob’s death. She is the singer’s youngest child, but she did not grow up with or around any of her half siblings. She attended high school and college in Pennsylvania and currently resides in the Philadelphia area.
“Children are wonderful. It don’t take plenty y’know. Just a nice girl who don’t take birth control. Sexual intercourse is a lovely thing”